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In the previous post, we talked about the main aspects of case report. Today, we are elaborating on more points that can help you develop your case report .

  1. Author Contributions

Providing more clarity about authors increases transparency report , allows researchers’ recognition, and increases accountability for all involved parties . However, you do not need to include an Author Contributions section in your manuscript. Acknowledgements section can include anyone who has helped but does not match the authorship criteria.

Contributor’s Position Definition of the Role
Conceptualization Overarching research goals and objectives; development or growth of ideas
Curation of data Annotate (create metadata), scrub data, and maintain research data (including software version for analyzing the data) for initial use and eventual reuse.
Formal Evaluation Analyze or synthesize study data using statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques.
Obtaining Funding Obtaining financial funding for the effort that resulted in this publication.
Investigation Performing experiments or gathering data and evidence as part of a research and inquiry procedure.
Methodology Development or design of methodology; creation of models.
Administration of the project Planning and execution of research activities are the responsibility of management and coordination.
Resources Study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computational resources, or other analysis tools are all available.
Software Programming, software development, computer program design, implementation of computer code and supporting algorithms, and testing of existing code components are all examples of programming.
Supervision Oversight and leadership responsibilities for the planning and execution of research activities, including mentorship outside of the core team.
Validation Verification of overall replication/reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs, whether as part of the activity or separately.
Visualization Preparation, development, and/or presentation of published work, with a focus on data visualization.
Writing – Preparation of the First Draft Creation and/or presentation of published material, with a focus on the first draft (including substantive translation).
Writing – Editing & Revision Preparation, development, and/or presentation of the published work by members of the original research group, including pre- and post-publication stages, with a focus on critical review, commentary, or revision.
  1. Conflicts of Interest

Articles must have a Competing Interests section and must not contain information, such as “advertising”. So, any financial, personal, or professional competing interests for any of the authors that could be interpreted as having an inappropriate effect on the article’s content must be disclosed and will be published beneath the piece report.

  1. Grant Information

Please specify who paid for the job, whether it was your employer, a grantor, or someone else. Remember not to t include any  report money that isn’t relevant to this particular research project. Please list the funder’s name, grant number (if relevant), and the person to whom the funding was assigned for each funder. If your work was not supported by any funding, please note in the “Grant information” section: “The author(s) declared that no grants were involved in supporting this study.”

  1. Receipts and Acknowledgements

This section should thank anyone who helped with the research or writing of the article but did not qualify as an author; please be specific about how they helped. Authors should acquire permission from all persons mentioned in the Acknowledgements section to include their name and affiliation. Please keep in mind that you should not include grant funding in this list.

  1. Supplementary Information

You can upload additional resources, such as surveys or supporting photos or tables, that support the paper’s main assertions but aren’t necessary to follow the study design and analysis of the results as extended data. You should store extended data in a secure repository and specify the data availability statement.

  1. Footnotes and references

Please note the references and footnotes in a way consistent within standard format of journal. Within an article, you can refer to both references and footnotes (a full reference list with in-text citations, and explanatory footnotes).

Our essential needs are as follows:

  • Abbreviations should follow discipline-specific guidelines.
  • Preprints can be cited and included in a bibliography.
  • Personal communications, unpublished abstracts, papers that have been submitted to a journal but have not yet been accepted, and unpublished abstracts should be included in the text instead; they should be referred to as ‘personal communications’ or ‘unpublished work,’ and the researchers involved should be named. The authors are responsible for obtaining permission from the quoted individuals to quote any personal messages.
  • Present weblinks, URLs, and links to the authors’ websites as hyperlinks rather than references in the main body of the text.
  • Datasets that have been published or deposited elsewhere (for example, in a general repository) should be noted in the “References” section, with the dataset’s citation following one of these examples
  1. Figures and Tables

In the article content, you should address all figures and tables in the text. For some journals, you should supply tables and figure legends after the main body of manuscript. It is better to format the tables in Word using the ‘insert table’ tool or as an Excel file. You upload figures as separate files while submitting your article . Any images taken must be accompanied by formal permission to publish from the people who appear in them. In the case of clinical photographs, any distinguishing elements, such as medical record numbers or codes, that could be used to identify the patient or participant, must be erased.

Titles and legends:

Each figure or table should have a short, 15-word title. Each figure and table should also have a legend that outlines the main points and clarifies any symbols or abbreviations used. The legend should be precise enough that the figure or table may be read independently of the primary text.


Authors are responsible for seeking permission from the copyright holder and paying any fees if reusing a figure or table from a previous publication (if applicable).’This figure/table has been reproduced with permission from [insert original publication citation]’, please add a comment to the legend.

Figure formats:

The color mode for all figures should be RGB or grayscale.

Line art:

Graphs, diagrams, flow charts, and phylogenetic trees are examples of line art. Please ensure that text font is at least 8pt. So, lines are thick enough to be read clearly at the scale at which the image will most likely be displayed (between 75-150 mm width, which corresponds to one or two columns width, respectively). The font size and type should be consistent across photographs. To ensure that figures display effectively online, create them with a white background.

If you’re submitting a graph, please save it as an EPS file using the program you used to make it (e.g. SPSS).

If you provide other types of line art to be shown as an image, such as flow charts, diagrams, or text, please export the image as an EPS file.

  1. Photographs (if applicable)

Photographs and microscopy pictures: Send photographs and microscopy pictures as uncompressed TIFFs with a resolution of at least 300dpi in size.

Mixed images: Submit images with a mix of half-tone images and line art (e.g. annotated gels or images with scale bars) as TIFF or vector files with a resolution of 500dpi.

Images as data: Please provide photographic images as uncompressed TIFF files as part of your raw dataset.

Electronic image manipulation: Image-editing software can improve the clarity of figures. However, you should do it  transparently and without distorting the facts (provide the original, unaltered source data with the article). Enhancing electronic images with brightness, contrast, or color balance is possible, but you must apply such modifications to the entire image. So, please note any non-linear alterations in the figure legend. Specific features within an image must not be enhanced, deleted, or concealed; and if figures are made up of images from separate sources, such as different gels, or different areas of the same source, this must be made apparent on the figure (e.g. by adding dividing lines).

In the Methods section of an article, authors must disclose details of all alterations report made to pictures published as figures or uploaded as data, including the name of the program (with version number) used to make these modifications.

  1. Mathematical scripts (if applicable)

Although there are no hard and fast standards regarding the format of mathematical scripts, here is some helpful advice:

  • Mathematical scripts, particularly subscripts and superscripts, as well as the distinction between the letter “ell” and figure one, and the letter “oh” and figure zero, should be handled with caution.
  • It’s crucial to distinguish between K and k; X, x, and x (multiplication); asterisks intended report to appear as multiplication signs when published and those intended to remain as asterisks, and so on.
  • Scalar variables must be italicized in both displayed equations and text, whereas non-variable matter must be typed upright.
  • Instead of a horizontal line, the solidus “/” should be used in the text for basic fractions, with parentheses inserted where appropriate to avoid ambiguity. The proper fractions are accessible (e.g., ¼, ½, ¾).
  • The solidus is not commonly used for units: m s⁻¹ rather than m/s, but electrons/s, counts/channel, and so on.
  • On the right-hand side, the equations referenced in the text should be numbered sequentially ((1), (2), etc.). Short statements that aren’t accompanied by  report a number are frequently inserted into the text.
  • For tensors, upright bold sans serif r is preferable; bold serif italic r is good for vectors; and finally upright bold serif r is for matrices; and for scalar variables, medium-face sloping serif r is preferable. The use of “d” for the differential in mathematical formulae should be apparent, and you should type it in roman, not italic.
  • Except where mathematical tradition demands otherwise, braces, brackets, and parentheses are used in the order [()]. (e.g., square brackets for commutators and anticommutators; braces for the exponent in exponentials).
  • For units and symbols, use SI system. Please include conversions where measures are supplied in other systems.
  1. Unique Characters (if applicable)

If you’re using Microsoft Word to prepare your manuscript and it contains special characters, accents, or diacritics, report  we recommend using the following procedure:

Choose Times New Roman font from the dropdown menu in the “Insert symbol” window and insert the character you require for European accents, Greek, Hebrew, or Cyrillic letters, or phonetic symbols. Choose Arial Unicode font from the dropdown menu in the “Insert symbol” window for Asian languages, and insert the character you need. You can use Times New Roman or Arial for transliterated Arabic. Choose Arial Unicode font from the “Insert symbol” window’s dropdown menu for ayns and hamzas, and then type the Unicode hexes directly into the “Character code” box. For ayn, use 02BF, and for hamza, use 02BE.