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Once you have completed your experiments, it is time to write it in a coherent and concise article that tells the story of your research. Articles usually follow a standard structure that allows readers to easily find the information they are looking for. In this article, we will discuss the standard structure and what to include in each section.

manuscript structure


Use this section to set your study context and problem. Keep in mind that several readers may not immediately understand the importance of your reading. Therefore, use general language and elaborate logic to guide your readers to the main problem / purpose of your study. In this section you should explain the reason and purpose of the study, explain how the research contributes significantly to the field of advanced knowledge, state the research question, explain the theoretical framework of the study, the background of the problem or topic that your research Offers and summarize the current state of knowledge on the subject, citing studies.

Materials and methods

This is the most special section for your study. A basic criterion for good research is that it must be reproducible. This means that another researcher should be able to reproduce the results by following the methods described in your paper. In this section you should provide full details of all methods, techniques and tools, description of questionnaires, surveys, or other data collection tools. Moreover, you should provide or cite studies that are valid, describe laboratory settings or environments, explain analysis methods, do not omit important details just to avoid a long description of the methods.


Put all the details of your data and results in this section. Highlight the most important findings in the text and then move on to the surrounding findings. Readers should be able to understand your results without spending too much time reading this section. In this section you should use tables and figures effectively to present the results in a way that is easy to understand at a glance, instead of providing a generalization, describe the actual data, state the main findings in the text, highlight any unexpected or surprising results in the text, explain what the results say, instead of simply stating the statistical data, if the results of your study are in the figures. And the tables you have shown, do not enter detailed descriptions of these results in the text.


A good discussion section extends the specific results to their broader meanings, which can then be linked to the general background provided in the introduction to maximize the impact of the overall article. So, remember to go “back and forth” between your discussion and the introduction. In this section, begin by interpreting the results by stating whether your hypothesis has been confirmed: what do the results mean? Relate your findings to the findings of previous studies, for example, whether your results are from the results of previous studies. Supports or deviates, remember to mention any possible alternative explanations for the results, limit reading, do not simply repeat the results, do not conclude that it is not supported by the data.


In this section, state the main results of the research in the context of the formulated problem. By the time readers reach this part of the text, they should have understood what you did and the results of the research. Readers need to be able to understand how and why you got your results. In this section, describe what you have learned from the study, make sure that the conclusion is directly related to your research question and the stated purpose of the study, explain the broader concepts of the research, suggest specific research approaches in the future to Upgrade your study knowledge or answer questions that your study did not address. Do not overdo your research or “generalize” the results, that is, expand the study findings to provide suggestions or conclusions that the research does not support. Do not simply summarize the results.

Now, it is time to prepare your manuscript for submission.

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