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Reference means the origin of the citation of any scientific article, which is one of the most important factors in accepting or rejecting a scientific article for publication in a specialized scientific journal. Reference is the first step to prevent plagiarism in writing. Providing references at the end of a scientific article indicates that it is valid.


After writing an article, some researchers may decide to publish the results of their research in the form of an article in a reputable scientific journal (e.g., Scopus-indexed journal). The reason is to validate their research, and further study and research on They the results obtained for other researchers, and through this research will go through a more complete evolution and reach more comprehensive results.

Before submitting an article to a scientific journal, an important point to note is the method of referencing. Authors should also be fully aware of the journal standards for reference writing to increase the likelihood of accepting the article.

Different methods of referencing

Particular referencing styles are preferred by particular academic disciplines because they work better with the kind of texts that are most commonly used in that discipline. Here are some well-known referencing styles, including

The MLA (Modern Language Association) system

The APA (American Psychological Association) system

The Vancouver reference writing

The Harvard system

The Chicago-style reference writing

Two methods of in-text citation

  • Parenthetical citations give a short reference in parentheses directly in the text.
  • Numerical citations give only a number that corresponds to a footnote, endnote, or reference list entry.

Important points for Parenthetical citations 

In citation references in an article, when we want to cite sources in the text,

only the last name of the author or authors and the year of publication of the

article are written in parentheses. Complete sources are written only in the

general list of sources and at the end of the article and a separate page;

References to books unlike articles should also include the page number cited in addition to the author’s last name and year of publication;

For articles or books by two authors, you should mention the last name of both authors and the year of publication;

When the number of authors is more than two, it is enough to mention the last name of the first author and the phrase “et al”;

In case you plan to use the content of an article that you read in another article, mention both sources;

If you use two sources when writing a definition or phrase, mark the name of the source with “;”.

You should not use footnotes in referencing articles. Using footnotes is for writing a book.

In referencing articles, you should mention the source in the text and in front of the cited phrases

You do not need to cite the original text directly when quoting; it is sufficient to interpret the results.

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